Identification of women, men, girls and boys with disabilities is a key step to ensure a comprehensive needs assessment for the provision of disability-inclusive emergency services in humanitarian action.
Inclusive rapid needs assessment is the collection of information that takes place as soon after the onset of an emergency as possible in order to understand the needs of all the communities affected and to justify the need for humanitarian action.
- Sensitize field workers and volunteers on disability, age and gender.
- Avoid starting from scratch: assess data from previous disasters or locally available data at administrative level. Was disability, age and gender mentioned and assessed, what were the needs? Make contact with local authorities to access these data (even if they are not completed): Departments of Health, Education, Social Welfare, or even the National Council for Human rights etc.
- Establish contacts with Disabled People's Organisation (DPOs) or disability and/or age specialist organisations to exchange data. They often have members and possibility to contact them for assessing the needs.
- If there is a lack of data on persons with disabilities, estimate that:
- 15% of the affected population may have some type of disability (physical, sensorial, intellectual and psychosocial disabilities ). Among them 50% are women;
- around 11,5% might be older people (60+);
- the number of children with disabilities can be calculated based on 10 per cent of the population under 14 years of any given population;
- There will be some people with new disabilities, and many people experiencing distress or worsening of pre-existing psychosocial disabilities.
- Targeting criteria could be adapted to the different groups of persons with disabilities and older persons; include women and men in assessment teams and or committees to promote better targeting.
- Whenever possible, build assessment teams and response teams that include someone with disability experience, and where feasible, include persons with disabilities; men and women, in the team.
- Conduct group interviews with persons with different types of disabilities, women and men, and all ages (screening children and infants with disabilities is important to identify their needs). If this is not possible, interviewing key informants from local DPOs becomes a must.
- Make sure that males and females with disabilities have been consulted and involved in the assessment to determine their specific needs, priorities and concerns within the sector-specific programming. Remember that people with disabilities, especially people with intellectual or psychosocial disabilities may be hidden from public view and need to be specifically asked about.
- Disaggregate data according to sex, age and disability, but be careful with protection of personal data – always ask for consent and explain the use of data.
- Observe the environment and contextualise your observations: are persons with disabilities and older people visible in the affected area? What seems to be the level of inclusion/exclusion, gender issues, status of persons with disabilities and older people etc.?
- Assess damages to services used by persons with disabilities and older people: regular and special schools, residential care or health institutions, rehabilitation centers, social services, DPOs, etc.
- Ensure people in closed institutions are not neglected if staff are no longer available. Provide essential medications as a matter of urgency, eg for people with epilepsy.
- Take pictures of water points, food distribution points, hospital and other services in the area to analyse level of accessibility.
- With the participation of persons with disabilities, analyse data to identify potential barriers that could exist in the planned response, share your assessment results and use for influencing other partners or organisations involved in the response. Keep in mind the principle of protection when sharing data, particularly in conflict contexts.
- Has the disaster led to an increased number of people with impairments and disabilities? The response then needs to include plans for those that might be in need of referral to more specialized health services or psychosocial support.
Methods for collecting sex, age and disability disaggregated data are available (Sphere Handbook, Washington Group Questions) and should be incorporated as an accepted standard across the humanitarian clusters.
The Sphere Handbook recommend disaggregating data on age according to the following intervals: 0-5; 6-12; 13-17; 18-49; 50-59; 60-69; 70-79; and 80+.
Make a commitment to include persons with disabilities from the beginning in community discussions during assessments and make sure that persons with disabilities and their families and carers are included and supported to inform the planning.
The Sphere Project. The Sphere Handbook. Core Standard 3: Assessment
World Bank and World Health Organisation. The World Report on Disability. 2011
Washington Group on Disability Statistics